The Pros and Cons of Almond Flour: Rebuttal to “5 Reasons To Avoid Almond Flour”

November 23, 2013 in Categories: by

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I get asked surprisingly often to rebut or respond to posts or articles that criticize or question either some aspect of the paleo diet or some frequently used ingredient.  I have to be honest:  I don’t like writing rebuttals.  In part, because I don’t enjoy engaging in discussions with people whose minds are already made up.  In part, because too often what aspect of the paleo diet that is being criticized isn’t even representative of mainstream paleo (which I consider myself to be part of).  When this is the case, my rebuttal usually goes something like “I agree completely with those points, but that’s not a paleo diet” (a good example is my rebuttal to the Weston A Price Foundation Summer 2013 Newsletter which you can read here).  In part, I dislike writing rebuttals because I always like to go to the science and sometimes the science doesn’t actually give us the answer (although I love talking about papers, study design, conflicting results, and implications for human health, as long as we can agree to continue to reevaluate our positions as new science is performed).  In part, because I’m just not a confrontational type person and I believe that everyone is entitled to their opinion and entitled to share their opinion (even if the way they share it is offensive and personally insults me), and I’m a strong believer in self-experimentation: if you find something that works for you, awesome.  But I digress…

This rebuttal isn’t about an attack on the paleo diet (or whether being leaner and fitter would give me more credibility… oh, sorry, there’s that tangent again…).  It’s quite simply a response to a question that I get asked several times per week:  is almond flour a good choice?

5-reasons-to-avoid-almond-flour-1024x768Lauren from Empowered Sustenance, who I deeply respect, published a compelling article titled “5 Reasons to Avoid Almond Flour” in April of this year.  The overarching message of this post is that coconut flour is a better choice than almond flour for paleo baking.  I have been asked so many times what my thoughts are on this article that I decided it was time to actually publish an official response.  I’m going to address the 5 reasons provided in the article, point by point.

Reason 1. Almond flour skews perception about quantity

I agree, but I think this applies to all flours.  Pre-chewed food (which is what ground almonds are) definitely skews your ability to perceive how many calories you are consuming.  However, this applies to any flour.  Almost anything you make with any flour or flour substitute is going to be physically easier to chew and swallow than if you were eating the whole food source of that flour.

Another related issue that the article doesn’t get into is food reward.  Almost anything you bake with any flour, almond or otherwise, is going to be highly palatable (meaning that you will choose it over other, whole foods), typically relatively high carbohydrate too.  This stimulates dopamine release, which actually affects your hunger hormone signals and leads to you wanting to eat more (or, at least it does in some people).  In fact, research shows that one of the most effective strategies to lose weight is to make food bland and unpalatable.

Overconsumption is a problem with any treat, paleo or not.  And, it’s the reason why we always recommend that paleo baked goods be consumed in moderation and only occasionally.  I don’t think this is a compelling argument against almond flour so much as an argument to make treats a treat.

Reason 2. Almond flour is very high in inflammatory PUFAS

I agree 100%.  My extensive research into the roles of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA) versus omega-6 fatty acids (AA) tells me that addressing gross imbalances in intake of these polyunsaturated fatty acids is one of the most critical things you can do to improve your health.  And the fact is that almost all nuts and seeds are very high in omega-6 fatty acids (the exceptions are coconut, macadamia nut, and walnut).

If you choose to consume any nuts or seeds (whether a flour or whole), or poultry for that matter, it’s important to balance that omega-6 intake with plenty of seafood.

Reason 3. The fats in almond flour aren’t heat stable

I disagree.  If you were cooking with almond oil, this would be true.  But, research shows that polyunsaturated fats are much more heat stable when part of the whole foods (including the unadulterated seed, but also ground into meals and flours).  The best research into the heat stability of polyunsaturated fats in baked goods comes from the study of flaxseed meal and research shows that only an extremely small percentage of the fats are oxidized during cooking. Researchers speculate that the reason the polyunsaturated fats in flaxseed meal are resistant to heat is because they are not isolated but rather are present in a matrix of other compounds that the flaxseeds contain (i.e., when they are bound to proteins, carbohydrates, other fats, fiber etc. that are part of the ground up seed).  In addition, the presence of antioxidants in the whole ground seed reduces fat oxidation.  These natural antioxidants include lignin fiber (rich in phenols, see this post) and vitamin E which nuts and seeds are particularly rich in.

Furthermore, the internal temperature of baked goods rarely exceeds 160F, which is well below the smoking point of even the most easily oxidized and unstable fats.

Reason 4. Almond flour is high in oxalates

I disagree, not that almonds are high in oxalates but that this might make them a bad choice.  Oxalates are an anti-nutrient found in nuts, seeds, many vegetables (like spinach and rhubarb), and grains.  Oxalic acid binds to minerals (forming oxalates, or oxalic acid salts), most notably calcium (forming calcium oxalate), and thus prevents the mineral’s absorption in the body. The concern with high intake of oxalate-rich foods is that this might contribute to calcium oxalate crystal formation, which is: a major component of the most common type of kidney stone; implicated in gout; and the problematic crystal deposited in joints in microcrystalline-associated arthritis.

Traditionally, a diagnosis of kidney stones comes with the recommendation to follow a low-oxalate, low protein diet.  However, the scientific research doesn’t support this and recommendations are starting to change to reflect new understandings of the key players in kidney diseases:  low dietary calcium, high fructose intake, gut dysbiosis, and chronic stress.  Actually, research shows that higher oxalate diets reduce your chances of developing kidney stones.  Even once you have developed kidney stones, low oxalate diets don’t appear to help (and as an aside, urine oxalate content which has long been used to assess kidney stone risk doesn’t actually appear to correlate at all!).  What does seem to help?  Increasing calcium ad eating more fruits and vegetables.

 Reason 5. Coconut flour is healthier than almond flour

I mumble mumble.  Eh.  I don’t agree but I don’t strongly disagree either.  Not that I think almond flour is some magical source of nutrition, but I don’t see coconut flour as a clearly better substitute.  The article’s arguments about the fats being more heat stable is moot after you read my response to reason #3.  It is true that a little goes a long way and this is owing to the fairly remarkable ability of coconut flour to absorb liquid.  The reason why coconut flour is so good at absorbing liquid is that it is extremely high in inulin fiber, a highly soluble and viscous and highly fermentable fiber.  Inulin is a FODMAP and may be a problem for people dealing with SIBO, leaky gut, FODMAP-intolerance, and IBS.  (you might want to read this post and this post from my Fiber Manifesto about the differential effects of insoluble and soluble fiber, which also warns against diets overly high in soluble fiber).

Reason 6. Yes, I’m adding one.

(although this is really only the second strike against almond flour) Actually, there’s a very compelling reason to limit consumption of almond products (including whole almonds, almond butter, and almond flour) that is not discussed in this article: the cyanogenic glycosides content.  Hydrogen cyanide, which is highly toxic, is released from cyanogenic glycosides when plants that contain them are chewed and digested (through an enzyme that is also present in the plant).  Almonds have a particularly large amount of cyanogenic glycosides.

One Big Pro: Nutrient Density

This isn’t an argument for or against almond flour, but rather a comparison between four commonly used paleo flour substitutes.  You already know that I’m a big fan of nutrient density.  I dislike the whole “almond flour is high in protein” argument because plant proteins are nowhere near as easy to digest as animal proteins.  But almond flour and other nut and seed flours definitely have compelling amounts of vitamins, minerals and other phytonutrients, and while not all of these are particularly bioavailable (nuts and seeds also have phytates, which bind minerals, although as the article points out, these are concentrated in the skins which are typically removed before nuts and seeds around ground into flours), I think this is probably the best argument for or against a particular flour (or food in general!) that you can make.  (By the way, the probiotic bacteria in your guts liberate many of the minerals from phytates and oxalates and other anti-nutrients present in your foods, so having good digestion in combination with a healthy diversity gut bacteria is one of the best things you can do to optimize the nutrient absorption from your food.)

This table compares the vitamins and minerals that nuts and seeds have a significant amount of.  I also included a breakdown of the types of fats, fiber and calories per 100g.  Because flours made from these are not in the USDA database, I used the whole (blanched when available) nut and compared against dried coconut (basically, the thing that is ground up to make flour).  Keep in mind that you typically use less coconut flour (between one quarter and one half, depending on how finely ground it is and the exact recipe it’s being used it) than other nut or seed flours.

nut flour compare table

From a nutrient-density perspective, I think coconut is actually the clear loser (although, it’s true that those medium chain triglycerides are very healthy).  And, I guess if your evaluation of the health of a treat was based purely on calories, coconut would win based on the fact that you can get away with using a fair bit less.

 Final Thoughts…

I don’t think almond flour is a terrible flour.  And I don’t think coconut is a better choice (not that I think you should avoid coconut flour either).  But, just like everything in our diets, I think variety is important.  You get different nutrients in different quantities from different foods.  And the best thing you can do to protect yourself from nutrient excesses or deficiencies is to eat variety.  So, mix it up.  Almond flour, sunflower seed flour, and hazelnut flour can be used interchangeably.  Other great options are chestnut flourpumpkin seed flour, ground walnuts, and there are some great non-nut options too, like pumpkin powder, plantain flour, and various starches (arrowroot, tapioca, sweet potato, kuzu, water chestnut).

And remember that this whole discussion is about optimizing nutrition for a treat.  If a treat really is just a treat, meaning you eat them occasionally and in moderation, the overall impact of suboptimal ingredients (providing you aren’t eating something that will actually hurt you, say by increasing intestinal permeability or stimulating the immune system) is pretty minimal.

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Arzoz-Fàbregas M, et al. Chronic Stress and Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease: Influence on Blood Cortisol and Urine Composition. Urology. 2013 Oct 12. pii: S0090-4295(13)01067-4.

Fink HA, et al Recurrent Nephrolithiasis in Adults: Comparative Effectiveness of Preventive Medical Strategies [Internet].

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Hyvarinen HK, Pihlava JM, et al. Effect of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed lignan added to bakery products. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jan 11;54(1):48-53.

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Thank you for the very concise and we’ll done article. Thank you also for the chart. Auto immune thyroid disease led me down the ancestral path towards paleo. I am 100% Celt with nearly all of that being Irish. The thing that fascinates me most has been the realization that the foods I disliked as a child turned out to be the ones I have an intolerance to- wheat being a BIG one- and the foods I gravitated towards are known to be what the ancient Irish diet consisted of. So Paleo for me has been a return to my childhood preferences!

I have been using almond flour but find that I suffer some GI issues with it. Some recent research I’ve done indicates that hazelnuts were a big part of the ancestral Irish diet and your chart has been most helpful.

I, too, have noticed that the things I wouldn’t eat as a child are the things that flare me (Inflammatory bowel disease). Makes you wonder why we teach our kids to try things multiple times to develop a taste for them…maybe God pre-programmed us to take care of ourselves a bit…

Also- Sarah- fabulous rebuttal.

Thanks Sarah for writing this! I get asked about almond flour being toxic a lot as well, and I 100% love your scientific, well-reasoned, well-researched, and balanced article.

Wish more people would read this!!

What about phytates? Nuts and seeds are high in phytates unless soaked first. I digest nuts much better if I soak them. Phytates interfere with digestion and mineral absorption.

There are real environmental issues around almonds and their impact on the California drought that I’m surprised weren’t mentioned in this. While it’s important to look at nutrition, we also need to keep in mind how sustainable or destructive a potential food is. Almonds are incredibly problematic fir the drought. One almond requires 1.1 gallons of water. That’s insane. So while I do certainly appreciate this article, the environmental impact cannot be ignored especially when we talk do much about buying foods from ethical and sustainably minded farmers.

I had my son on a high almond diet because milk issues and he stopped growing for almosta year. his alkaline phophatase levels went through roof over 9000. when i took him off almonds the levels dropped and he improved. i am following the fb group trying low oxalates and seeing by experience how much better i do low ox. i once in awhile eat almonds but it is not the core of our diet anymore. my son started to grow and i am not having do many stomach issues.

I suffer from IBS and SIBO and drink coconut milk, almond milk and bake with almond flour. I also eat almond butter. It looks like I have to lay off the coconut and the almonds. has anyone used chestnut flour?

I read the original article about avoiding, then researched and found another medically based article that said the opposite regarding almonds and inflammation. I have rheumatoid arthritis and it suggested that eating almonds could aid with this inflammation. I’m confused by this conflicting information. Also almonds aid in GABA production. What ate your thoughts on this?

I found your information about Almond Flour, as well as other Paleo/SCD approved flours, to be very helpful, and well thought out. I really like your balanced approach to the Paleo diet.

With that being said, I have a question about what types of nuts have the least amount of inflammatory factors? I have had IBS/SIBO, off and on for years, and I think (too soon to tell, but………) I am finally getting a handle on the sympstoms, following a more strict plan of both SCD + Paleo programs. However, I notice some nuances between what is “legal” on the SCD and “legal” on Paleo.

In my situation, would Walnuts, Brazil Nuts, or Sunflower Seeds be a better choice than Almonds? I am allergic to pecans and coconut.

Thank you :)

I find many of these articles dont contain many good scientific studies but someones experience and what they believe. It doesnt matter what you believe its either fact or fantasy, well done article here I must say. In the areas of these flours I dont personally like coconut flour its very dry and grainy taste and requires to much added moisture to make it taste half way decent. I bake and cook quite a bit since i cant eat grains anymore. Almond flour you just cant over do eating almonds. Or anything for that matter. Everything in moderation is the real key here.

so, what quantity of almonds is considered too much and what is an ok amount. For 5 days last week I ate 35 almonds for a snack. Is that too many almonds in a week?

Why does the paleo community consider the minimal phytic acid in sprouted legumes to be a deal breaker, in spite of the high vitamin and mineral content, but shrugs off phytic acid in nuts/seeds, and oxylates in spinach?
I’m not just asking to be snarky, I’m genuinely confused. Seems like one mineral-binder is the same as the other, and there’s a lot more you can do to liberate from phytic acid than from oxalic, as I understand.
I’m starting to wonder whether it is just a hangover from the “carbs are bad” origins of paleo.

Thank you, thank you , thank you. I love your user friendly website! I love that you can break paleo down in plain English for beginners, it has motivated me to plunge into paleo! I’m a Fibrmyalgia sufferer and I am looking forward to seeing the changes in my body. Thank you for what you do!

Thanks for review of this article. I find that many Paleo cookbooks use almond flour frequently. But, unfortunately I have very high IgG and IgA levels in response to almonds and hazelnuts. So, I will try the other flours mentioned. I had no idea until I had the blood work done. I was eating almonds whole and the flour frequently up until I got the results.

What a treat to see a such balanced and well researched article. If one believed most of the other stuff online, you would starve as they all trumpet their particular chosen food. Thanks for an enlightening read.

I cannot tolerate any form of grain, which led me to paleo however after severe vomiting several times a week for almost twelve months, I found oxalates were the problem. The severity of the vomiting gave me an enlarged heart. I am looking into all aspects of leaky gut syndrome

Thank you very much for this rebuttal. From someone who has Ulcerative Colitis, has trouble absorbing nutrients, and cannot consume almost all sugars and starches, I need an alternative. Nuts do that for me.

Yes, nuts are high in omega-6 fatty acids, which are pro-inflammatory. However, IBD is an inflammatory disease and considering that the SCD diet has been around for a long time, that many are able to get their IBD into remission and stay there though adhering to the diet, and that the diet is heavy on almond four–I think there must be other factors involved in IBD that are mitigating the pro-inflammatory factor of omega-6. We just don’t know what they are.

I agree, variety is important. Yes, macadamia nuts are not nearly as high in omega-6. I love macadamia nuts :)

Eating a lot of fish is good too!

And if you have IBD, make and eat SCD homemade yogurt!

Hi, I liked your article. I was alarmed when I read your Point 6 which referred to cyanide. I did some further searching and read elsewhere that the cyanide problem was only with bitter almonds. It said bitter almonds are not allowed to be sold in the US for this reason. Do you have further thoughts on this? Thank you.

I think this whole thing goes back to an Ancient Greek saying. “All things in moderation.” I baked a pumpkin loaf for the first time this week with almond flour. Amazing consistency! It was delicious & a special treat. The point is that whichever flour we choose to bake with or whichever special occasion foods we choose to eat, there should be a variety in our diet that agrees with our bodies. I imagine that the cons of almond flour would be a problem if someone was eating this all day the time.

Thank you for the article & information.

I love to bake, especially Christmas cookies. I have one recipe that I usually use almonds and grind them and mix them with the flour. Being German I have never heard of Almond flour and wondering if I can use thr almond flour instead of my own ground almonds ?

On the cyanogenic glycosides issue, I thought this was just a problem with bitter almonds. The almonds that most people buy in the shops are the sweet variety. Are you saying that all almonds are high in cyanogenic glycosides?

Regarding your interesting article, “The Pros and Cons of Almond Flour,” I am curious about your opinion of almond milk. I make my own almond milk. I have been drinking 2 cups a day for several years. Should I be concerned?

Same question here. I don’t eat paleo flours but I do make sprouted almond milk regularly (sometimes coconut and hazlenut).

“one of the most effective strategies to lose weight is to make food bland and unpalatable.” It doesn’t take studies or a doctorate to know that!!

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